Dalla neuroeconomia alla neuroetica: verso una neuroscienza delle decisioni individuali e socio-morali

Maria Arioli, Nicola Canessa

Abstract


Riassunto: Neuroeconomia e neuroetica sono settori delle neuroscienze cognitive che studiano i correlati neurali di aspetti distinti, sebbene strettamente interconnessi, del processo decisionale. Mentre la neuroeconomia studia i meccanismi cerebrali che guidano verso la massimizzazione dell’utilità economica personale, la neuroetica integra tali conoscenze con quelle fornite dalle neuroscienze sociali per affrontare domande tipiche dell'etica e della filosofia morale. Gli studi oggi disponibili in questo ambito vengono qui discussi al fine di mettere a confronto l’ipotesi secondo cui le scelte economiche individuali e socio-morali sono supportate da un unico circuito cerebrale con differenti input specifici per dominio (Extended Common Currency Schema) rispetto a quella che prevede basi cerebrali specifiche per la scelta in ambito socio-morale (Social-Valutation-Specific Schema). In linea con il primo dei due modelli, i dati presenti in letteratura sembrano confermare l’esistenza di un singolo sistema cerebrale associato ai diversi tipi di scelta, indipendentemente dal contesto decisionale individuale vs. socio-morale.

Parole chiave:  Decision-making; Neuroeconomia; Neuroetica; Extended Common Currency Schema; Social Valutation Specific Schema

 

From Neuroeconomy to Neuroethics: Towards a Neuroscience of Individual and Socio-Moral Decisions

Abstract: Neuroeconomics and neuroethics are subfields of cognitive neuroscience that address the neural correlates of distinct, although strongly intertwined, facets of decision-making. While neuroeconomics investigates the neural mechanisms underlying the maximization of personal economic utility, neuroethics integrates such knowledge with that provided by social neurosciences, in order to address typical questions in ethics and moral philosophy. We review the available research to contrast the hypothesis that both individual economic and socio-moral choices rely on a common brain network receiving domain-specific inputs (Extended Common Currency Schema) and the claim that a specific brain network underpins choices in a socio-moral context (Social-Valutation-Specific Schema). In line with the former model, currently available evidence supports the existence of a single brain network associated with both choice types, regardless of the economic individual vs. socio-moral decisional context.

Keywords: Decision-making; Neuroeconomics; Neuroethics; Extended Common Currency Schema; Social Valutation Specific Schema


Keyword


Decision-making; Neuroeconomia; Neuroetica; Extended Common Currency Schema; Social Valutation Specific Schema

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4453/rifp.2017.0011

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